彩娃安卓版|怎样阅读一则英语新闻

2020-01-09 08:31:16 来源:骰宝游戏手机版 阅读:4404

彩娃安卓版|怎样阅读一则英语新闻

彩娃安卓版,先从headline开始吧。

注意:headline和我们理解的“头条”有差别。headline指那种大字标题。我们说的头条一般在报纸头版最显眼的地方,叫front-page headline。换句话说,下面这种news story的大标题,就叫headline,也是我们常说的title。headlines在广播电视新闻中也指新闻概要。

吸引我们的往往是这个headline。比如我对咖啡、养生比较感兴趣,这个headline中吸引我的,首先是coffee formula——什么叫“咖啡公式”呢?

标题的几个特点:第一它无需严格遵守语法,只需要突出关键词即可。第二它需要做到eye-catching,所以会用一惊一乍的表达,总之要让我们印象深刻,所以在这里,我们能pick up 到很多俚语成语什么的。比如这个headline中的full of beans——马吃饱了豆子就很有力气——所以其实他就是full of energy的意思。

我们的第一个note——

notes:full of beans

如果你连开头都没猜对,那就看看后半句吧:how much caffeine you need to avoid tiredness,这回coffee formula的意思差不多了。这篇文章讲什么?我们每天需要喝多少咖啡。

我们中文的新闻标题分主标题和副标题,比如上面这个标题,在中文报纸中,会写成“【主标题】咖啡公式”,然后另起一行“【副标题】你需要多少咖啡因保持精力充沛……”

在网络版的报纸新闻中,标题之后、正文之前,会有这几行字,它的作用既像subtitle(副标题)、又像news quotes(引语),把本文的要点列出来。

· a revolutionary algorithm developed by the us military tells you how much caffeine you need to consume

· the method was developed so sleep deprived soldiers have enough energy

· scientists found an exact measure of caffeine could stop fatigue and keep troops focused

by georgia edkins for the daily mail

published: 01:44 bst, 23 july 2018 | updated: 02:50 bst, 23 july 2018

这部分内容建议重点看,大部分时候这几句话,就决定我们是否需要认真地读下去(因为要点、结论都在这里面了)。如果要写summary,这个部分就是最好的例子。

关于单词的问题:有些单词——比如属于awl的,值得我们多加关注,无论是你熟悉还是陌生的。例如consume,这里面就有个很典型的搭配例子consume + caffeine。

这就有了我们第二个note——

notes

consume + caffeine

stop + fatigue (后面会看到stave off tiredness)

develop + method

英语新闻,开头那一段一般是导语,叫newslead。这是最关键的,一般我们阅读考试中,总有一个题目,考main idea,其实大部分情况下,这个导语部分就能解决问题了。

there has always been an art to making a good coffee – and now there is a science.

a revolutionary algorithm that tells you how much caffeine you need to consume to stave off tiredness has been developed by the us military.

the ingenious method – that will no doubt be welcomed by commuters up and down the country - was developed by the us army and department of defense so that soldiers have enough energy when they are sleep-deprived.

我们都熟悉新闻阅读(其实所有阅读都是)的5w+1h法则。其实在这个lead中,我们可以获得这些信息:

1. what(说什么事情)——how much caffeine

2. who(和谁有关系)——你我这些需要咖啡提神的普通人

3. how(结论怎么来)——developed by the us military

4. when和where——看来不重要,重要的是结论

5. why(为什么研究)——军方研究咖啡,为了soldiers have enough energy when they are sleep-deprived

在此过程中,我们遇到一些词汇,有些当时认识即可(比如algorithm “算法”)、有些能猜到即可(例如ingenious肯定是褒义词;stave off 应该和fight against差不多) 。除非你自己喜欢某个新学的表达,想今后拿出来炫耀一番,于是第三个note——

notes

sleep-deprived缺乏睡眠的

commuters 通勤者

(我们不如这样记住它:sleep-deprived commuters——想像一下早高峰时地铁上那些困倦的小白领们)

newslead之后的部分,叫做body。

scientists found an exact measure of caffeine could stop fatigue and keep troops focused in order to avoid catastrophic and possibly life-threatening consequences out in the field.

but non-military personnel may also take advantage of the guidelines to stay alert.

research based on decades of sleep-deprivation studies advises those who do not get enough rest to consume 200 milligrams of caffeine – or two regular cups of coffee - when they wake up and another 200 milligrams four hours later.

those who work nights are told to consume 200 milligrams at the beginning of the shift. a regular coffee has about 100 milligrams of caffeine.

but timings may change as the algorithm takes into account how much someone has slept and works out a personalised caffeine regime in the hope to boost a person's efficiency by up to 40 per cent.

someone who has slept for five hours and wakes up at 6am may have their first cup of coffee at 7am and their second at 9am.

jaques reifman, a senior research scientist who helped develop the algorithm told the wall street journal:‘if you could come to work, drink caffeine and have your mental acuity improved by 40 per cent for four hours, wouldn't you like that? that's what we're trying to do here.’

at the moment, the software is not in the public domain but army top brass hope to license the technology and create a smartphone app. a simplified version of the mathematical method and guidelines is available on website, 2b alert.

particularly special is the algorithm's ability to learn, so that over time it will remember the user's habits and tailor their caffeine regime accordingly.

句子分析:划分“名词词组(词块)”的两种常见的、后置的定语——分词定语和定语从句。例如这句:

research based on decades of sleep-deprivation studies advises those who do not get enough rest to consume 200 milligrams of caffeine – or two regular cups of coffee - when they wake up and another 200 milligrams four hours later.

第一个名词词块:research + based on decades of sleep-deprivation studies(根据几十年来对于睡眠缺乏症的研究)这个名词词块做主语。

第二个名词词块:those + who do not get enough rest(那些睡眠不足的人们)这个词块做宾语。

句子信息:研究建议这类人醒来时摄入200毫克的咖啡因——即喝两份中杯咖啡——四小时后再喝两杯。

those who work nights are told to consume 200 milligrams at the beginning of the shift. a regular coffee has about 100 milligrams of caffeine.

句子信息:熬夜工作的人应该在一开始先喝两杯咖啡,每一杯含咖啡因100毫克。

someone who has slept for five hours and wakes up at 6am may have their first cup of coffee at 7am and their second at 9am.

句子信息:睡眠了五小时到早上6点起床的话,7点喝第一杯、9点喝第二杯,这样可以迅速恢复40%的精力。

这里出现第四个note——

notes

shift

takes into account

boost a person's efficiency

top brass

tailor their caffeine regime

(哪些词需要注意呢?旧词新用法、阅读高频词——如awl)

ok,我们现在review一下今天的内容:

新闻的构成分四部分

1. headline或title,这里面会出现一些有趣的表达法;

2. subtitle或news quotes,这部分就是个summary;

3. newslead出现在正文开头段,从内容上全是干货;

4. body部分是文章详细陈述的,注意里面的词和个别句子。

作为泛读的一种素材,我们需要从三个方面学习

1. 三类词汇:旧词新用法(词义和搭配)、阅读高频词、以及你觉得有趣的词。

这是今天学习的十组词:

full of beans

consume + caffeine

stop + fatigue = stave off tiredness)

develop + method

sleep-deprived + commuters 缺乏睡眠的通勤者

shift

takes into account

boost a person's efficiency

top brass (高层官员)

tailor their caffeine regime

2. 烧脑句子 :一般是结构特殊、或复杂的长句(本文主要是名词的后置修饰)

这是今天分析的三个句子(粗体是修饰语):

research based on decades of sleep-deprivation studies advises thosewho do not get enough rest to consume 200 milligrams of caffeine – or two regular cups of coffee - when they wake up and another 200 milligrams four hours later.

those who work nights are told to consume 200 milligrams at the beginning of the shift. a regular coffee has about 100 milligrams of caffeine.

someone who has slept for five hours and wakes up at 6 am may have their first cup of coffee at 7 am and their second at 9 am.

3. 实用信息:如果你昨天睡眠不足、今天还要强打精神,那么四杯咖啡能让你恢复40%的能量值。但是时间把握很关键。

(1)醒来两杯、四小时后两杯;

(2)如果睡了五小时,那么醒来一小时后、两小时后各一杯——根据自己的作息规律,参照此法调整。

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